A Geological and Spatial Approach to Prehistoric Archaeological Surveys on Small Islands: Case Studies from Maluku Barat Daya, Indonesia

Shimona Kealy, Lucas Wattimena, Sue O'Connor

Abstract


Survei arkeologi sangat penting untuk penemuan dan interpretasi sisa-sisa yang ditinggalkan oleh aktivitas manusia prasejarah. Saat ini penginderaan jarak jauh dan model prediktif telah meningkatkan jangkauan dan keberhasilan survei arkeologi, namun survei pejalan kaki untuk mengembangkan parameter model dan prediksi kebenaran dasar masih penting untuk keberhasilan suatu penemuan. Penelitian ini merupakan hasil survei arkeologi tahun 2017 di Pulau Babar Besar dan Pulau Wetang yang termasuk dalam bagian dari kelompok Kepulauan Babar, Maluku Barat Daya, Indonesia. Tercatat sebanyak 62 situs arkeologi ditemukan di kedua pulau tersebut, tujuh diantaranya merupakan situs lukisan cadas baru yang ditemukan di Pulau Wetang. Hasil survei ini menunjukkan keberhasilan penggunaan peta geologi dan topografi di samping citra satelit dalam mendeteksi daerah prospektif untuk survei. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman karakteristik geologi daerah yang lebih rinci dan komparatif diperlukan sebelum dilakukan survei jarak jauh yang lebih lanjut di wilayah Maluku Barat Daya, Indonesia.

Archaeological surveys are essential to the discovery and interpretation of remains left by past human activities. While remote sensing and predictive models have greatly improved the reach and success of archaeological survey, pedestrian surveys to develop model parameters and ground-truth predictions is still imperative for successful discoveries. Here we present the results of the 2017 archaeological survey of islands Babar Besar and Wetang in the Babar Island Group, Maluku Barat Daya, Indonesia. A total of 62 archaeological sites were recorded between the two islands; seven of which represent new rock art sites on Wetang island. Our survey results indicate the successful use of geological and topographic maps alongside satellite images in detecting prospective regions for survey. Results also indicate however that a more detailed and comparative understanding of the regions geology is required before more advanced forms of remote survey are conducted in the Maluku Barat Daya region.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v13i2.458

Keywords


Survey; Babar; Maluku; Archaeology; Prehistory

   

Full Text:


PDF
      

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 685 | PDF views: 460 | Total views: 1165
    Crowdsourcing

References


[1] Agustiyanto, D., Suparman, M., Achdan A., & Sukarna, D. (1994). Peta Geologi Lembar Babar, Maluku Tenggara. Bandung: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi. (view)

[2] Alexakis, D., Sarris, A., Astaras, T., & Albanakis, K. (2011). Integrated GIS, remote sensing and geomorphologic approaches for the reconstruction of the landscape habitation of Thessaly during the Neolithic period. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(1), 89-100. (view)

[3] Arif, J., Kaifu, Y., Baba, H., Suparka, M. E., Zaim, Y., & Setoguchi, T. (2002). Preliminary observation of a new cranium of Homo erectus (Tjg-1993.05) from Sangiran, Central Jawa. Anthropological Science, 110(2), 165-177. (view)

[4] Aronson, M., & Berger, L. (2012). The skull in the rock: How a scientist, a boy, and Google Earth opened a new window on human origins. Washington: National Geographic Books. (view)

[5] Balla, A., Pavlogeorgatos, G., Tsiafakis, D., & Pavlidis, G. (2013). Locating Macedonian tombs using predictive modelling. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 14(5), 403-410. (view)

[6] Ballard, C. (1988). Dudumahan: a rock art site on Kai Kecil, SE Moluccas. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 8, 139-161. (view)

[7] Berger, L. R., De Ruiter, D. J., Churchill, S. E., Schmid, P., Carlson, K. J., Dirks, P. H., & Kibii, J. M. (2010). Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science, 328(5975), 195-204. (view)

[8] Bintarti, D. D., Indraningsih, J. R., & Kosasih, S. A. (1977). Laporan hasil survai kepurbakalaan di daerah Maluku Tengah (Pulau Ambon, Seram, dan sekitarnya). Pusat Penelitian Purbakala dan Peninggalan Nasional, Departemen P & K. (view)

[9] Ellen, R. F., & Glover, I. C. (1974). Pottery manufacture and trade in the Central Moluccas, Indonesia: the modern situation and the historical implications. Man, 9(3), 353-379. (view)

[10] Evans, D. H., Fletcher, R. J., Pottier, C., Chevance, J. B., Soutif, D., Tan, B. S., Im, S., Ea, D., Tin, T., Kim, S., Cromarty, C., De Greef, S., Hanus, K., Bâty, P., Kuszinger, R., Shimoda, I., & Boornazian, G. (2013). Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(31), 12595-12600. (view)

[11] Glover, I. C., & Ellen, R. F. (1975). Ethnographie and archaeological aspects of a flaked stone collection from Seram, Eastern Indonesia. Asian Perspectives, 18(1), 51-60. (view)

[12] Jacob, T. (1964). A new hominid skull cap from Pleistocene Sangiran. Anthropologica, 6(1), 97-104. (view)

[13] Jaime, Z. (2006). Building a predictive model for Paleoindian archaeological site location using geographic information systems. (MA Thesis) Western Michigan University, Michigan, USA. (view)

[14] Kealy, S., Louys, J., & O'Connor, S. (2017). Reconstructing palaeogeography and inter‐island visibility in the Wallacean Archipelago during the likely period of Sahul colonization, 65–45000 years ago. Archaeological Prospection, 24(3), 259-272. (view)

[15] Lape, P. V. (2000). Political dynamics and religious change in the late pre-colonial Banda Islands, Eastern Indonesia. World Archaeology, 32(1), 138-155. (view)

[16] Lape, P. V. (2002). Historic maps and archaeology as a means of understanding late precolonial settlement in the Banda Islands, Indonesia. Asian Perspectives, 41(1), 43-70. (view)

[17] Lape, P. V. (2006). Chronology of Fortified Settlements in East Timor. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 1(2), 285-297. (view)

[18] Lape, P. V. & Chao, C. (2008). Fortification as a human response to late Holocene climate change in East Timor. Archaeology in Oceania, 43(1), 11-21. (view)

[19] Lape, P. V., Aziz, F. A., Ekowati, D., Huff, J., Handoko, W., Huwae, A., ... & Zenobi, L. (2017). Reframing the Island Southeast Asian Neolithic: Local vs regional adaptations. In B. Prasetyo, T. S. Nastiti & T. Simanjuntak (Eds.), Austronesian Diaspora: A New Perspective (pp. 65-76). Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. (view)

[20] Latinis, K. & Stark, K. (2003). Roasted dirt: Assessing earthenware assemblages from sites in Central Maluku, Indonesia. In J. N. Miksic (Ed.), Earthenware in Southeast Asia (pp. 103-135). Singapore: Singapore University Press. (view)

[21] Latinis, D. K. & Stark, K. (2005). Cave use variability in central Maluku, eastern Indonesia. Asian Perspectives, 44(1), 119-136. (view)

[22] Lertlum, S., & Mamoru, S. (2009). Application of Geo-informatics to the study of the Royal Road from Angkor to Phimai. Japanese Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 46(4), 547-563. (view)

[23] Mehrer, M. W. & Wescott, K. L. (Eds.). (2006). GIS and Archaeological Site Location Modeling. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. (view)

[24] Meredith-Williams, M. G., Hausmann, N., Bailey, G. N., King, G. C. P., Alsharekh, A., Al Ghamdi, S., & Inglis, R. H. (2014). Mapping, modelling and predicting prehistoric coastal archaeology in the southern Red Sea using new applications of digital-imaging techniques. World Archaeology, 46(1), 10-24. (view)

[25] O’Connor, S., Aplin, K., Spriggs, M., Veth, P., & Ayliffe, L. A. (2002). From savannah to rainforest: changing environments and human occupation at Liang Lemdubu, the Aru Islands, Maluku, Indonesia. In A. P. Kershaw, B. David, N. Tapper, D. Penny, & J. Brown (Eds.), Bridging Wallace’s Line: The Environmental and Cultural History and Dynamics of the Southeast Asian–Australian Region (pp. 279–306). Reiskirchen: Catena Verlag. Advances in GeoEcology 34. (view)

[26] O’Connor, S., Spriggs, M., & Veth, P. (Eds.). (2005). The Archaeology of the Aru Islands, Eastern Indonesia. Terra Australis 22. Canberra: Pandanus Books. (view)

[27] O’Connor, S., Mahirta, Tanudirjo, D., Ririmasse, M., Husni, M., Kealy, S., Hawkins, S., & Alifah. (2017). Ideology, ritual performance and its manifestations in the rock art of Timor-Leste and Kisar Island, Island South East Asia. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 28(2), 225-241. (view)

[28] O’Connor, S., Mahirta, Kealy, S., Boulanger, C., Maloney, T., Hawkins, S., Langley, M. C., Kaharudin H. A. F., Suniarti, Y., Husni, M., Ririmasse, M., Tanudirjo, D. A., Wattimena, L., Handoko, W., Alifah, & Louys, J. (2018). Kisar and the archaeology of small islands in the Wallacean Archipelago. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 1-28. (view)

[29] O'Reilly, D., Evans, D., & Shewan, L. (2017). Airborne LiDAR prospection at Lovea, an Iron Age moated settlement in central Cambodia. Antiquity, 91(358), 947-965. (view)

[30] Orton, C. (2000). Sampling in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (view)

[31] Parcak, S., Mumford, G., & Childs, C. (2017). Using open access satellite data alongside ground based remote sensing: An assessment, with case studies from Egypt’s Delta. Geosciences, 7(4), 94. (view)

[32] Pringle, H. (2011). Satellite imagery uncovers up to 17 lost Egyptian pyramids. Science News. 27 May 2011. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/ (view)

[33] Ramsey, C. B. (2009). Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon, 51(1), 337-360. (view)

[34] Ririmasse, M. N. (2006). Aspek-aspek kronologi arkeologi kolonial di Pulau Kisar. Dalam Berita Penelitian Arkeologi, 2(1). (view)

[35] Ririmasse, M. N. (2007). Penelitian arkeologi di Desa Lingat Pulau Selaru Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat. Dalam Berita Penelitian Arkeologi, 3(4). (view)

[36] Ririmasse, M. N. (2010). Arkeologi Pulau-pulau Terdepan di Maluku, Suatu Tinjauan Awal. Kapata Arkeologi, 6(10), 71-89. (view)

[37] Ririmasse, M. N. (2013). Arkeologi Pulau Terluar di Maluku: Survei arkeologi Pulau Masela. KALPATARU, 22(2), 71-88. (view)

[38] Ririmasse, M. N. (2016a). Arkeologi Kepulauan Tanimbar Bagian Utara: Tinjauan potensi di Pulau Fordata dan Pulau Larat Maluku Indonesia. Kapata Arkeologi, 12(1), 43-58. (view)

[39] Ririmasse, M. N. (2016b). Arkeologi Kawasan Hatusua di Seram Bagian Barat Maluku: Hasil penelitian terkini dan arah pengembangannya. Kapata Arkeologi, 12(2), 125-136. (view)

[40] Röder, J. (1938). Felsbilder auf Ceram. Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde. 1(1), 19-28. (view)

[41] Sherden, A., & Pile, D. (2016). Virtual reality and drones could unlock secrets about the mysterious Plain of Jars in Laos. ABC News. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/ (view)

[42] Silberman, N. A. (2012). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (Vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press. (view)

[43] Spriggs, M. & Miller, D. (1979). Ambon-Lease: A study of contemporary pottery making and trade in Eastern Indonesia and its archaeological relevance. In M. Millett (Ed.), Pottery and the Archaeologist (pp. 25-34). London: Occasional Paper No. 4 of the Institute of Archaeology, London. (view)

[44] Spriggs, M. & Miller, D. (1988). A previously unreported bronze Kettledrum from the Kai Islands, Eastern Indonesia. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin, 8, 79-89. (view)

[45] Spriggs, M. (1990). Archaeological and ethnoarchaeological research in Maluku 1975 and 1977: an unfinished story. Cakalele: Maluku Research Journal, 1(1-2), 51-65. (view)

[46] Stark, K., & Latinis, K. (1996). The response of early Ambonese foragers to the Maluku spice trade: the archaeological evidence. Cakalele: Maluku Research Journal, 7, 51-67. (view)

[47] Sudarmika, G. M. (2000). Laporan Hasil Penelitian Arkeologi Bidang Arkeometri di Kec. PP. Babar Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat. Ambon: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Pusat Arkeologi Balai Arkeologi Ambon. (view)

[48] Sudarmika, G. M. (2001a). Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi di Pulau Leti Kecamatan Lemola Maluku Tenggara Barat. Ambon: Balai Arkeologi Ambon. (view)

[49] Sudarmika, G. M. (2001b). Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi di Pulau Lakor Kecamatan Lemola Maluku Tenggara Barat. Ambon: Balai Arkeologi Ambon. (view)

[50] Suwardhi, D., Mukhlisin, M., Darmawan, D., Trisyanti, S. W., Brahmantara, & Suhartono, Y. (2016). Survey dan pemodelan 3D (tiga dimensi) untuk dokumentasi digital Candi Borobudur. Jurnal Konservasi Cagar Budaya Borobudur, 10(2), 10-22. (view)

[51] Tyler, D. E. & Sartono, S. (2001). A new Homo erectus cranium from Sangiran, Java. Human Evolution, 16(1), 13-25. (view)

[52] Vaughn, S., & Crawford, T. (2009). A predictive model of archaeological potential: An example from northwestern Belize. Applied Geography, 29(4), 542-555. (view)

[53] White, G. G. & King, T. F. (2016). The Archaeological Survey Manual. London: Routledge. (view)


Article Metrics

Abstract views: 685 | PDF views: 460 | Total views: 1165



Copyright (c) 2018 Kapata Arkeologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

KAPATA ARKEOLOGI INDEXED BY:

 

        

 

Copyright of Kapata Arkeologi (e-ISSN 2503-0876 p-ISSN 1858-4101). Powered by OJS. ©Designed by Mujabuddawat.

           Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats