Building Social Resilience on Asmat People: Social and Cultural Perspective

Cahyo Pamungkas

Abstract


Berbagai kajian mengenai Asmat selama ini lebih banyak dari kajian seni ukir dan kekayaan budaya kayunya. Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB) gizi buruk dan campak yang menyerang anak-anak Balita di daerah ini sejak Bulan September 2017 sampai pertengahan Bulan Januari 2018 telah membuka mata dunia internasional bahwa keberlanjutan Suku Asmat dipertanyakan. Berbagai analisis ilmiah menjelaskan bahwa peristiwa kematian masal Balita ini disebabkan oleh persoalan rendahnya budaya kesehatan, lingkungan yang kurang mendukung, dan sulitnya menyediakan pelayanan kesehatan pada daerah yang terisolir. Seolah-olah orang dan budaya suku Asmat dan situasi geografisnya menjadi penyebab dari penyakit ini. Oleh karena itu, artikel ini bertujuan untuk menarasikan bagaimana melihat wabah penyakit tersebut dari perspektif sosial dan kultural, yaitu rendahnya ketahanan sosial suku Asmat. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan studi pustaka dan diskusi terfokus di Jayapura. Kerangka teori yang digunakan adalah pendekatan ekologis dan kebudayaan dalam melihat keberlanjutan suatu komunitas agar sanggup menghadapi perubahan lingkungan eksternalnya. Argumentasi yang dibangun dalam artikel ini adalah menyelamatkan suku Asmat dalam jangka panjang hanya dapat dilakukan dengan mengembalikan mereka ke habitatnya dan mengurangi ketergantungan pada konsumsi pangan yang disediakan oleh pasar. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebab mendasar KLB Asmat adalah ketercerabutan Orang Asmat dari habitat ekologinya sehingga mereka bergantung pada pangan yang disediakan oleh pasar.

Various studies on Asmat ethnicities tend to focus on carving art and cultural richness of wood. Since the malnutrition and measles affecting children under five in this area from September 2017 to mid January 2018 has opened the eyes of international communities that the sustainability of Asmat tribe is questioned. Various scientific analyzes explain that the mass death of children resulted from low health culture, the less supportive environment, and the difficulty of providing health services to isolated areas. It implicitly says that the people, culture, and environment of Asmat tribes are the main causes of this disease. It is as if the Asmat people and culture and the geographical situation are the cause of this disease. Therefore, this article aims to describe the epidemic from a social and cultural perspective, namely the low social resilience of the Asmat. The research method is conducted by using literature studies and a focused discussion in Jayapura. The theoretical framework used is the ecological and cultural approach to viewing the sustainability of a community to be able to cope with environmental change. The argument of this study is to save Asmat tribes in the extended period only by restoring them to their habitat and reducing the dependence on the food consumption provided by the market. Results of this study indicate that the underlying cause of Asmat outbreaks is the gratuity of Asmat people from their ecological habitats so that they depend on the food provided by the market.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v14i1.489

Keywords


Asmat People; Social Resilience; Cultural Perspectives; Sustainability

   

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