Looking For a Trace of Shamanism, in the Rock Art of Maros-Pangkep, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Irsyad Leihitu, Raden Cecep Eka Permana

Abstract


Gambar cadas adalah fenomena arkeologi yang tersebar di seluruh dunia. Umumnya, seni prasejarah ini terdiri atas berbagai bentuk, motif, dan juga makna. Artikel ini membahas gambar cadas Indonesia, khususnya di wilayah Maros-Pangkep, Sulawesi Selatan. Menurut teori David Lewis-Williams dan David S. Whitley tentang pendekatan neuropsikologi terhadap gambar cadas, mereka mendeskripsikan "beberapa" motif sebagai penggambaran tahapan atau metafora dari Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) yang berhubungan dengan shamanisme. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menunjukkan bagaimana teori ASC dapat diuji dalam gambar cadas Maros-Pangkep, dan juga menunjukkan indikasi keberadaan shamanisme dalam gambar cadas Indonesia. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan analogi formal dan studi komparatif tentang motif-motif gambar cadas terpilih di kawasan Maros-Pangkep dengan gambar cadas di Afrika, Siberia, dan juga gambar cadas di Amerika. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa teori ASC dapat diterapkan dalam gambar cadas Indonesia dan ada beberapa indikasi shamanisme dalam gambar cadas di wilayah Maros-Pangkep.

Rock art is an archaeological phenomenon which spread all over the world. Generally, this prehistoric art consists of various forms, motifs, and also meanings. This article discusses Indonesian rock art, particularly the Maros-Pangkep region in South Sulawesi. According to David Lewis-Williams and David S. Whitley’s theory about the neuropsychology approach to rock art, they describe “some” motifs as a depiction of stages or metaphors of the Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) that relates to shamanism. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how the ASC theory can be tested in Maros-Pangkep Rock Art, and also shows an indication of the existence of shamanism in Indonesian rock art. The research methods are formal analogy and comparative studies on the selected motifs of rock art in the Maros-Pangkep region with African, Siberian, and also American rock art. The result shows that the ASC theory can be applied in Indonesian rock art and there are some indications of shamanism in rock art motifs in the Maros-Pangkep region.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v14i1.496

Keywords


Rock art; Shamanism; Neuropsychology; Altered State of Consciousness; Trance; Maros-Pangkep, Formal Analogy

   

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