Islamicization Strategies in Kao Ancient Village, North Halmahera

Wuri Handoko, Muhammad Al Mujabuddawat, Joss Whittaker

Abstract


Situs permukiman Kampung kuno Kao terletak di pedalaman Halmahera Utara, berdiri di atas tanah yang relatif basah diapit oleh sungai Aer Kalak, Ake Ngoali, dan Ake Jodo dan dikelilingi oleh hutan sagu dan rawa. Kondisi permukiman di situs ini membuatnya memiliki keterbatasan ruang hunian, namun orang-orang yang menghuni Kampung kuno Kao bermukim di wilayah ini dalam jangka waktu yang relatif panjang, yaitu antara 100-200 tahun, dan bahkan tercatat dalam rekam sejarah bahwa wilayah Kao dahulu menjadi penyuplai makanan pokok Ternate. Penelitian ini bersifat deduktif, yaitu menyusun sebuah hipotesa yang kemudian diuji di lapangan. Metode pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode observasi lapangan dan ekskavasi arkeologi. Ragam data arkeologi baik artefak maupun tradisi lisan yang diperoleh di lapangan kemudian dianalisa dengan merujuk pada sumber referensi yang relevan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Situs Kao merupakan permukiman yang cukup maju  dan memiliki peran cukup penting sebagai wilayah pusat Islamisasi di Halmahera. Orang-orang di Kampung kuno Kao tinggal dalam waktu lama di satu lokasi didukung oleh sumber air dan potensi tanah-tanah pertanian menjadikan wilayah Kao sebagai bagian dari jaringan perdagangan yang ramai. Kao menjadi bagian dari strategi dalam penyebaran Islam ke wilayah-wilayah pedalaman lainnya, juga daerah-daerah pesisir di Halmahera Utara.

The Kao Ancient Village settlement site is located in the hinterland of North Halmahera, standing on relatively wet ground flanked by the river Aer Kalak, Ake Ngoali, and Ake Jodo and surrounded by sago and swamp forests. The settlement conditions on the site make it limited for residential space, but a community of Kao people settled in this area for a relatively long period of time between 100-200 years and even recorded in history that Kao region is the main food supplier for Ternate in the past. This research conducted surface surveys and limited excavations, then mapped the areas of artifactual findings, and identified patterns of spatial use by analyzing surface features and artifact scatters. Variety of archeological data both artifacts and oral traditions are then analyzed guided by relevant reference sources. The results show that Kao Site is an advanced settlement and has a significant role as the center of Islamicization in Halmahera. The Kao people settled for a long time in one location supported by water sources and the potential of farming lands making the Kao area a part of bustling trade networks. Kao became part of a strategy in spreading Islam to other inland areas, as well as coastal areas in North Halmahera.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v14i1.507

Keywords


Kao; North Halmahera; archaeology; Islamicization; Islam conversion

   

Full Text:


PDF
      

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 255 | PDF views: 146 | Total views: 401
    Crowdsourcing

References


[1] Amal, M. A. (2010). Kepulauan Rempah-rempah Perjalanan Sejarah Maluku Utara 1250-1950. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG). (view)

[2] Ambary, H. M. (1998). Menemukan Peradaban, Arkeologi dan Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional. (view)

[3] Andaya, L. Y. (1991). Local Trade Networks in Maluku in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries. Cakalele, 2(2), 71–96. (view)

[4] Andaya, L. Y. (1993). The world of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia in the early modern period. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (view)

[5] Andaya, L. Y. (2015). Dunia Maluku Indonesia Timur Pada Zaman Modern Awal. Yogyakarta: Ombak. (view)

[6] Binford, L. R. (1990). Mobility, Housing, and Environment: A Comparative Study. Journal of Anthropological Research, 46(2), 119–152. (view)

[7] Bolender, D. J., Steinberg, J. M., & Damiata, B. N. (2011). Farmstead relocation at the end of the Viking Age: results of the Skagafjörḥur archaeological settlement survey. Archaeologica Islandica, 9, 77–99. (view)

[8] Bulbeck, F. D., & Clune, G. (2003). Macassar Historical Decorated Earthenwares: Preliminary chronology and Bajau connections. In Earthenware in Southeast Asia (pp. 80–102). (view)

[9] Campen, C. F. H. (1883). Het eiland Halmahera. Tijdschrift van Het Bataviaasch Genootschap, 28, 240–313. (view)

[10] Carvajal, J. C. (2013). Islamicization or Islamicizations? Expansion of Islam and social practice in the Vega of Granada (south-east Spain). World Archaeology, 45(1), 109–123. (view)

[11] Clarke, A., & Torrence, R. (2003). The Archaeology of Difference: negotiating cross-cultural engagements in Oceania. London: Routledge. (view)

[12] De Jonge, N., & Van Dijk, J. (1995). Forgotten Islands of Indonesia: The Art & Culture of the Southeast Moluccas. Tuttle Publishing, 2012. Singapore: Periplus. (view)

[13] Delle, J. A. (1999). The Landscapes of Class Negotiation on Coffee Plantations in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica: 1790-1850. Historical Archaeology, 33(1), 136–158. (view)

[14] Denham, T., Haberle, S., & Lentfer, C. (2004). New Evidence and Revised Interpretations of Early Agriculture in Highland New Guinea. Antiquity, 78(302), 839–857. (view)

[15] Ellen, R. F. (1979). Sago Subsistence and the Trade in Spices: a Provisional Model of Ecological Succession and Imbalance in Moluccan History. In P. C. Burnham (Ed.), Social and Ecological Systems (pp. 43–74). London: Academic Press. (view)

[16] Ellen, R. F. (2003). On the Edge of the Banda Zone: Past and Present in the Social Organization of a Moluccan Trading Network. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (view)

[17] Fennell, C. (1998). Conjuring Boundaries: inferring past identities from religious artifacts. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 4(4), 281–313. (view)

[18] Fromont, C. (2011). Under the sign of the cross in the kingdom of Kongo: religious conversion and visual correlation in early modern Central Africa. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, 59(1), 109–123. (view)

[19] González-Ruibal, A. (2012). From the battlefield to the labour camp: archaeology of civil war and dictatorship in Spain. Antiquity, 86(332), 456–473. (view)

[20] Graham, E., Simmons, S. E., & White, C. D. (2013). The Spanish conquest and the Maya collapse: how “religious” is change? World Archaeology, 45(1), 161–185. (view)

[21] Groves, C. (1981). Ancestors for the pigs: taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus sus. Canberra: Australian National University. (view)

[22] Handoko, W. (2007). Aktifitas Perdagangan Lokal di Kepualuan Maluku Abad 15 M - 19 M, Tinjauan Awal Berdasarkan Data Keramik Asing dan Komoditas Lokal. Kapata Arkeologi, 3(4), 100–120. (view)

[23] Handoko, W. (2012). Perkembangan Islam di Pulau Ambalau: Kajian atas Data Arkeologi dan Tradisi Makam Islam Berundak. Kapata Arkeologi, 8(1), 25–34. (view)

[24] Handoko, W. (2013). Karakteristik Arsitektur Masjid Kuno dan Perkembangan Islam di Maluku. Amerta, 31(1), 39–52. (view)

[25] Handoko, W. (2014). Tradisi Nisan Menhir pada Makam Kuno Raja-raja di Wilayah Kerajaan Hitu. Kapata Arkeologi, 10(1), 33–46. (view)

[26] Handoko, W. (2016). The Continuity of Austronesian Tradition on Islamic and Early Colonial Period in Maluku. In B. Prasetyo, T. S. Nastiti, & T. Simanjuntak (Eds.), Proceedings the International Symposium on Austronesian Diaspora (pp. 481–491). Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. (view)

[27] Handoko, W. (2017). Ekspansi Kekuasaan Islam Kesultanan Ternate di Pesisir Timur Halmahera Utara. Kapata Arkeologi, 13(1), 95–108. (view)

[28] Handoko, W., & Mujabuddawat, M. A. (2017a). Lingkungan dan Lansekap Situs Kampung Kuno Kao: Faktor Determinasi Permukiman dan Pusat Islamisasi di Halmahera Utara. KALPATARU, Majalah Arkeologi, 26(2), 123–136. (view)

[29] Handoko, W., & Mujabuddawat, M. A. (2017b). Situs Kampung Tua Kao: Identitas Asal Usul dan Jejak Peradaban Islam di Wilayah Pedalaman Halmahera Utara. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 2(2), 150–165. (view)

[30] Handoko, W., Mujabuddawat, M. A., Huwae, A., Husni, M., Karolina, J., & Latupapua, S. (2016). Research report: Tanah Kao: Menguak Identitas Asal Usul Komunitas, Sejarah, dan Peradaban Islam di Halmahera Utara. Ambon: Balai Arkeologi Maluku. (view)

[31] Harrower, M. J. (2008). Hydrology, Ideology, and the Origins of Irrigation in Ancient Southwest Arabia. Current Anthropology, 49(3), 497–510. (view)

[32] Hutson, S. R., & Welch, J. A. (2014). Sacred Landscapes and Building Practices at Uci, Kancab, and Ucanha, Yucatan, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica, 25(2), 421–439. (view)

[33] Insoll, T. (1996). Introduction. The Archaeology of World Religion. In T. Insoll (Ed.), Archaeology and World Religion. London: Routledge. (view)

[34] Insoll, T. (1999). The Archaeology of Islam. Oxford: Blackwell. (view)

[35] Insoll, T. (2001). The Archaeology of Islam. In Archaeology and World Religion (pp. 123–147). London: Routledge. (view)

[36] Insoll, T. (2003). The Archaeology of Islam in Sub Sahara Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (view)

[37] Joseph, J. W. (1993). White Columns and Black Hands: Class and Classification in the Plantation Ideology of the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry. Historical Archaeology, 27(3), 57–73. (view)

[38] Kayser, M., Brauer, S., Weiss, G., Underhill, P., Roewer, L., Schiefenhövel, W., & Stoneking, M. (2000). Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes. Current Biology, 10(20), 1237–1246. (view)

[39] Lape, P. V. (2000a). Contact and Colonialism in the Banda Islands, Maluku, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 4, 20(4), 48–55. (view)

[40] Lape, P. V. (2000b). Political Dynamics and Religious Change in the Late Pre-colonial Banda Islands, Eastern Indonesia. World Archaeology, 32(1), 138–155. (view)

[41] Lape, P. V. (2003). A Highway and a Crossroads: Island Southeast Asia and Culture Contact Archaeology. Archaeology in Oceania, 38(2), 102–109. (view)

[42] Lape, P. V. (2005). Archaeological approaches to the study of Islam in Island Southeast Asia. Antiquity, 79(306), 829–836. (view)

[43] Leirissa, R. Z. (1990). Masyarakat Halmahera dan Raja Jailolo: Studi tentang Sejarah Masyarakat Halmahera Utara. Thesis Universitas Indonesia. (view)

[44] Leirissa, R. Z. (1993). The Structure of Makassar Bugis Trade in Premodern Moluccas. In Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 27 (p. 77). (view)

[45] Love, S. (2013). Architecture as Material Culture: Building Form and Materiality in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of Anatolia and Levant. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 32(4), 746–758. (view)

[46] Lucas, G. (2009). The Tensions of Modernity: Skálholt During the 17th and 18th Centuries. Journal of the North Atlantic, 2(sp1), 75–88. (view)

[47] Lucas, G., Batey, C., Gudmundsson, G., Lawson, I. T., Mc Govern, T. H., & Simpson, I. A. (2009). Hofstaḥir: excavations of a Viking Age feasting hall in north-eastern Iceland. Reykjavik: Institute of Archaeology. (view)

[48] Macknight, C. C. (1973). The Nature of Early Maritime Trade: some points of analogy from the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago. World Archaeology, 5(2), 198–208. (view)

[49] Mahmud, M. I. (2003). Kota Kuno Palopo: dimensi fisik, sosial, dan kosmologi. (M. Press, Ed.). Makassar. (view)

[50] Manan, M. A. (2014). Ritual Tagi Jere dalam Komunitas Etnik Kao: Peran Lembaga Dewan Adat dan Badan Syara’ dan Perkembangannya. Jurnal Masyarakat & Budaya, 16(1), 27–50. (view)

[51] McGuire, R. (1991). Building Power in the Cultural Landscapes of Broome County, New York 1880 to 1940. In The Archaeology of Inequality (pp. 102–124). (view)

[52] Meilink-Roelofsz, M. A. P. (1962). Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630. Ph.D. Dissertation, Nijhoff The Hague. (view)

[53] Miksic, J. N. (2000). Heterogenetic Cities in Premodern Southeast Asia. World Archaeology, 32(1), 106–120. (view)

[54] Mujabuddawat, M. A. (2015). Kejayaan Kesultanan Buton Abad ke-17 & 18 dalam Tinjauan Arkeologi Ekologi. Kapata Arkeologi, 11(1), 21–32. (view)

[55] Mujabuddawat, M. A. (2016). Simbolisme Kompleks Bangunan Situs Ki Buyut Trusmi Cirebon. Kapata Arkeologi, 12(2), 175–190. (view)

[56] Naping, H. (2013). Halmahera Utara, Sejarah Perkembangan Peradaban di Bumi Hibua Lamo. Makassar: Universitas Hasanuddin, Pemerintah Kabupaten Halmahera Utara, dan Yayasan Bina Generasi. (view)

[57] O’Connor, S. (2006). Unpacking the Island Southeast Asian Neolithic cultural package, and finding local complexity. In Uncovering Southeast Asia’s Past (pp. 74–86). (view)

[58] Ogundiran, A. (2014). The Making of an Internal Frontier Settlement: Archaeology and Historical Process in Osun Grove (Nigeria), Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries. African Archaeological Review, 31(1), 1–24. (view)

[59] Oland, M. (2014). With the Gifts and Good Treatment That He Gave Them: Elite Maya Adoption of Spanish Material Culture at Progresso Lagoon, Belize. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 18(4), 643–667. (view)

[60] Poelinggomang, L., E. (2002). Makassar Abad XIX. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG). (view)

[61] Ptak, R. (1992). The Northern Trade Route to the Spice Islands : South China Sea - Sulu Zone - North Moluccas (14th to early 16th century). Archipelago, 43(1), 27–56. (view)

[62] Ptak, R. (1999). China’s Seaborne Trade With South and Southeast Asia 1200-1750. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. (view)

[63] Reid, A. (1988). Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450-1680, volume one: The lands below the winds. New Haven: Yale University Press. (view)

[64] Reid, A. (1993). Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450-1680, volume two: Expansion and crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press. (view)

[65] Reid, A. (1995). Continuity and change in the Austronesian transition to Islam and Christianity. In P. Bellwood, J. Fox, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Austronesians: historical and comparative perspectives (pp. 314–318). Canberra: Australian National University. (view)

[66] Reid, A. (2011). Asia Tenggara Dalam Kurun Niaga 1450—1680 Jilid 2 Jaringan Perdagangan Global. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia. (view)

[67] Rodning, C. B. (2011). Mortuary Practices, Gender Ideology, and the Cherokee Town at the Coweeta Creek Site. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 30(2), 145–173. (view)

[68] Siegel, P. E. (2010). Continuity and Change in the Evolution of Religion and Political Organization on Pre-Columbian Puerto Rico. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 29(3), 302–326. (view)

[69] Spriggs, M. (2011). Archaeology and the Austronesian expansion: where are we now? Antiquity, 85(328), 510–528. (view)

[70] Spyer, P. (2000). The Memory of Trade: Modernity’s entanglements on an eastern Indonesian island. Durham: Duke University Press. (view)

[71] Stark, K., & Latinis, K. (1992). The Archaeology of Sago Economies in Central Maluku: An Initial Sketch. Cakalele, 3, 69–86. (view)

[72] Stark, K., & Latinis, K. (1996). The Response of Early Ambonese Foragers to the Maluku Spice Trade: The Archaeological Evidence. Cakalele, 7, 51–76. (view)

[73] Sutherland, H. (2000). Trepang and Wangkang: The China trade of eighteenth-century Makassar c. 1720s-1840s. Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde, 156(3), 451–472. (view)

[74] Swadling, P., Wagner, R., & Laba, B. (1996). Plumes of Paradise: trade cycles in outer Southeast Asia and their impact on New Guinea and nearby islands until 1920. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (view)

[75] Szabó, K., & O’Connor, S. (2004). Migration and Complexity in Holocene Island Southeast Asia. World Archaeology, 36(4), 621–628. (view)

[76] Tanudirjo, D. A. (2006). The Dispersal of Austronesian-speaking People and the Ethnogenesis of Indonesian People. In Austronesian Diaspora and the Ethnogeneses of People in Indonesian Archipelago (pp. 83–98). (view)

[77] Terrell, J. E. (1988). Prehistory in the Pacific Islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (view)

[78] Tim Penelitian. (2014). Laporan penelitian: Arkeologi Islam di Wilayah Pesisir Timur Kabupaten Halmahera Utara. Ambon: Tidak terbit. (view)

[79] van Fraassen, C. F. (1980). Types of socio‐political structure in North Halmaheran history. Indonesia Circle, 8(23), 21–39. (view)

[80] Veth, P. M., O’Connor, S., Spriggs, M., Nayati, W., Jatmiko, A., & Husni, M. (2000). The Mystery of the Ujir Site: insights into the early historic maritime settlement of the Aru Islands, Maluku. Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology, 24, 125. (view)

[81] Veth, P. M., O’Connor, S., Spriggs, M., Nayati, W., Jatmiko, A., & Husni, M. (2005). The Ujir Site: An Early Historic Maritime Settlement in Northwestern Aru. The Archaeology of the Aru Islands, Eastern Indonesia. Terra Australis, 22, 85–93. (view)

[82] Zoëga, G., & Bolender, D. (2017). An archeology of moments: Christian conversion and practice in a medieval household cemetery. Journal of Social Archaeology, 17(1), 69–91. (view)


Article Metrics

Abstract views: 255 | PDF views: 146 | Total views: 401



Copyright (c) 2018 Kapata Arkeologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

KAPATA ARKEOLOGI INDEXED BY:

 

        

 

Copyright of Kapata Arkeologi (e-ISSN 2503-0876 p-ISSN 1858-4101). Powered by OJS. ©Designed by Mujabuddawat.

           Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats