Prehistoric Occupation at Sakkarra Site as Early Metal Phase Tradition and Neolithic Culture Along the Karama Drainage, West Sulawesi

nfn Suryatman, Budianto Hakim, nfn Fakhri, Andi Muhammad Saiful, nfn Hasliana


Abstract


Situs Lembah Karama adalah kawasan hunian prasejarah, yang mengandung banyak data arkeologis untuk mengungkap sejarah kedatangan dan perkembangan budaya penutur Austronesia di Sulawesi. Mereka bermukim di sepanjang Lembah Karama sejak 3.800 tahun yang lalu, terus bertahan dan menyebar untuk mengembangkan pengetahuan logam ke daerah lain, baik hilir dan pedalaman Sulawesi. Lapisan budaya in situ ditemukan pada penggalian tahun 2014 dengan penanggalan sekitar 172 cal BCE hingga 55 CE. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan budaya fase logam awal di Situs Sakkarra berdasarkan data penelitian terkini. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif untuk menganalisis lapisan budaya berdasarkan pengamatan stratigrafi, konteks, dan temuan artefak dari beberapa data ekskavasi yang dilakukan pada tahun 2014, 2016 dan 2017. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada indikasi hunian yang lebih tua, yaitu fase Neolitik, hingga berlanjut ke fase logam awal di Sakkarra. Namun, periode ini tidak berlangsung lama, sebelum akhirnya memasuki tahap hunian intensif 2.000 tahun yang lalu. Tradisi budaya neolitik belum menghilang dan masih melekat dalam tatanan budaya mereka ketika pengetahuan logam mulai hadir di kawasan Lembah Karama. Kesinambungan budaya tercermin dalam pemeliharaan tradisi teknologi Neolitik seperti pembuatan tembikar dan alat-alat batu yang diupam. Lapisan budaya di Situs Sakkara menunjukkan adanya hunian penutur Austronesia yang berlanjut dari fase Neolitik ke fase logam awal di Lembah Karama. Bahkan mereka secara aktif terlibat dalam interaksi perdagangan yang telah terjalin di antara pulau-pulau di Asia Tenggara pada waktu itu.

The Karama drainage region is a prehistoric occupation site, which contains many archaeological data to uncover the history of the arrival and development of the Austronesian-speakers culture in Sulawesi. They have occupied along the Karama drainage since 3,800 years ago, continue to persist and spread to develop of metal knowledge to other areas, both downstream and inland Sulawesi. The in situ cultural layers found on excavations of 2014 with dating around 172 cal BCE to 55 CE. The aim of the study is described of early metal phase culture in Sakkarra Site based on the latest research data. This study used qualitative methods to analyses of cultural layers based on stratigraphic observations, contexts, and artifact findings from several data of excavation conducted in 2014, 2016 and 2017. The research result shows there is an indication of older occupation, which is the Neolithic phase, continued unabated into the Early Metal Phase at Sakkarra. However, this period does not last long, before finally entering the stage of intensive occupancy by 2,000 years ago. Neolithic cultural traditions have not disappeared and still inherent in their cultural order when metal knowledge begins to present in Karama Drainage. Cultural continuity is reflected in the maintenance of Neolithic technological traditions such as the manufacture of earthenware pottery and polished stone tools. The cultural layer in Sakkara Site indicates the existence of Austronesian speakers' occupation that continues from the Neolithic phase to the initial metal phase in Karama Drainage. Even they are actively involved in the shipping and trade that had intertwined among the islands in Southeast Asia at that time.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v14i2.515

Keywords


Karama Drainage; culture; metal phase; Neolithic; tradition; Austronesian

   

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