Varieties and Origins of Kampai Island Glass Beads

Ery Soedewo


Abstract


Manik-manik kaca yang ditemukan di berbagai situs arkeologi di Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara antara abad 1 dan 13 umumnya disebut sebagai manik-manik kaca Indo-Pasifik. Berbagai bentuk dan warna manik-manik kaca ditemukan di Pulau Kampai, Kabupaten Langkat, Sumatera Utara. Data yang dikumpulkan dari manik-manik kaca diperoleh dari penggalian arkeologi di Pulau Kampai. Dalam menganalisis varietas manik-manik kaca, penelitian ini mengkarakterisasi varietas manik-manik kaca Pulau Kampai berdasarkan tipologi dan frekuensi, yaitu manik-manik kaca polos dan manik-manik kaca berlekuk. Sejumlah manik-manik kaca ini dianalisis di laboratorium untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi bahan. Dalam menentukan asal produksi manik-manik kaca, penelitian ini menggunakan metode komparatif pada beberapa penelitian yang terpublikasi. Melalui perbandingan temuan limbah manik-manik kaca dari pusat produksi Arikamedu dan manik-manik kaca di Papanaidupet (India) dan Gudo (Indonesia), hasilnya diketahui bahwa Pulau Kampai adalah tempat produksi manik-manik kaca di wilayah Selat Malaka antara abad ke-11 hingga ke-14. Munculnya pulau Kampai sebagai tempat produksi manik-manik kaca pada abad ke-11 kemungkinan disebabkan oleh kondisi geopolitik. Tradisi pembuatan manik-manik kaca menyebar ke Pulau Kampai karena pengaruh Kerajaan Caka meningkat di wilayah Selat Malaka setelah ekspansinya ke beberapa tempat di wilayah tersebut.

The glass beads discovered in various archaeological sites in South Asia and Southeast Asia between the 1st and 13th centuries were generally referred to as Indo-Pacific glass beads. Various shapes and colors of glass beads are found on Kampai Island, Langkat Regency, Sumatera Utara. Collected data of glass beads were obtained from archaeological excavations in Kampai Island. In analyzing varieties of glass beads, this study characterizes the variety of Kampai Island glass beads based on their typology and frequency, i.e., drawn glass beads and wound glass beads. A number of these glass beads were analyzed in the laboratory to identify the composition of the ingredients. In determining the origin of glass beads production, this study used a comparative method on some published research. Through comparison of the findings of glass beads wastes from Arikamedu and glass beads production centers in Papanaidupet (India) and Gudo (Indonesia), the result finds that Kampai Island was a glass beads production site in the Malacca Strait region between 11th–14th centuries. The emergence of Kampai island as a glass beads production site in the 11th century was likely a result of geopolitical conditions. Glass bead making traditions spread to Kampai Island as Cōla Kingdom influences rose in Malacca Strait region after its expansion to several places in that region.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v14i2.532

Keywords


glass beads; Kampai Island; Malacca Strait; production; waste

   

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