Recent Rock Art Research on East Seram, Maluku: A key site in the rock art of West Papua and South East Maluku

Adhi Agus Oktaviana, Peter Van Lape, Marlon NR Ririmasse


Abstract


Gambar cadas di Indonesia mulai diteliti sejak sebelum abad 20. Sejumlah publikasi ilmiah sebelumnya mencatat keberadaan situs gambar cadas di Pulau Seram, Provinsi Maluku yaitu di tebing Sawai dan Sungai Tala. Survei arkeologi terkini di kawasan Seram Timur dan Seram Laut yang dilakukan oleh gabungan Tim Peneliti Indonesian-American berhasil menemukan Situs gambar cadas baru di pesisir Seram Timur. gambar cadas ini terlukiskan di permukaan dinding tebing bernama lokal tebing Watu Sika. Gambar cadas di Situs Watu Sika tampak mirip dengan sejumlah situs gambar cadas lainnya di Indonesia Timur yang sebagian besar terlukis di dinding tebing karst sepanjang wilayah pesisir. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode perekaman verbal dan piktorial dibantu aplikasi Dstretch untuk memperjelas gambar-gambar agar mudah diidentifikasi. Penelitian ini menganalisis sejumlah pola figuratif dan non figuratif pada motif-motif gambar cadas di Situs Watu Sika. Hasil identifikasi terhadap sejumlah motif gambar cadas di situs ini diketahui terdapat motif gambar cadas berbentuk figur manusia, hewan, ikan, perahu, hand stencils negatif, dan pola geometris. Penelitian ini juga membahas analisis latar belakang konteks sosial terhadap tradisi gambar cadas di wilayah sekitarnya, yaitu wilayah Laut Banda. Berdasarkan jaringan persebaran temuan gambar cadas di Indonesia Timur, maka menghasilkan pengetahuan baru bahwa analisis data sementara ini menunjukkan Situs Watu Sika merupakan kunci penghubung jalur persebaran gambar cadas yang berasal dari wilayah barat ke dua jalur, pertama jalur ke arah Timur Laut, yaitu wilayah Papua dan Jalur ke Selatan, yaitu ke arah Kepulauan di sekitar Laut Banda.

Rock art in Indonesia has been investigated before the 20th century. A number of previous scientific publications noted the existence of rock art sites on Seram Island, Maluku Province, which was on the cliff of Sawai and Tala River. Recent archaeological surveys in the area of East Seram and Seram Laut conducted by a joint Indonesian-American Research Team discovered a new rock art site in the coast of East Seram. The rock art is painted on the cliff wall which is called by the locals as Watu Sika. Rock art on the Watu Sika Site is similar to a number of rock art at other sites in Eastern Indonesia which were mostly painted on karstic cliffs along the coast. This study used verbal and pictorial recording methods using the Dstretch application to clarify images to support identification. This study analyzed a number of figurative and non-figurative patterns of rock art motifs at Watu Sika Site. The results of the identification of a number of rock art motifs on this site show that there are several patterns including figures of human, animal, fish, boats, negative hand stencils, and geometric patterns. This study also discussed an analysis of the social context background of rock art tradition in the surrounding region, particularly at the Banda Sea region. Based on the distribution network of rock art findings in eastern Indonesia, new insights are generated that this interim data analysis show that Watu Sika Site is the key to connecting the distribution path of rock art originating from the western region into two lanes. The first lane to the Northeast, which is the Papua region and South Lane, expanding towards the Islands around the Banda Sea.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v14i2.534

Keywords


East Seram; Watu Sika site; rock art; Dstretch plugin

   

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