Local Community Participation in Establishing the Criteria for Heritage Significance Assessment of the Cultural Heritage in Medan

Isnen Fitri, Yahaya Ahmad, nfn Ratna


Abstract


Nilai penting adalah satu-satunya alasan yang mendasari pelestarian cagar budaya. Terbukti bahwa tidak ada masyarakat yang berupaya melestarikan aset bersejarah yang tidak mengandung nilai. Sejak penerbitan Burra Charter pada tahun 1979, banyak negara mengakui pentingnya mengidentifikasi makna atau nilai penting objek warisan budaya untuk mengembangkan kebijakan dan perencanaan dalam pengelolaannya. Saat ini, asesmen nilai penting objek warisan budaya adalah bagian dari proses penetapan aset sejarah menjadi cagar budaya. Meskipun wacana konservasi cagar budaya di Kota Medan telah berkembang sejak 1980-an, tetapi asesmen nilai penting budaya masih merupakan konsep baru untuk komunitas cagar budaya Indonesia karena tidak terdapat uraian yang jelas dalam Undang-Undang Cagar Budaya No. 11 tahun 2010. Berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut, perlu seperangkat kriteria yang mengandung prinsip, karakteristik, kategori, dan panduan untuk membantu menetapkan apakah aset bersejarah mengandung nilai warisan budaya atau tidak dan untuk menghasilkan penilaian yang lebih akuntabel, transparan, dan konsisten. Menetapkan daftar kriteria selayaknya menjadi wilayah para akademisi dan para ahli yang dikoordinasikan oleh pihak berwenang di daerah setempat. Namun, hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penetapan kriteria untuk penilaian signifikansi dapat dilakukan dengan melibatkan 33 orang masyarakat lokal melalui tiga fase pengumpulan data dan analisis antara lain survei lapangan; wawancara mendalam; pertemuan kelompok; dan kuesioner kepada 33 peserta. Akhirnya, penelitian ini menghasilkan enam kriteria untuk penilaian penetapan cagar budaya di Kota Medan yang berasal dari lima nilai: sejarah, desain atau arsitektur fisik, budaya dan spiritual, ilmiah, dan sosial.

Value is the sole reason underlying heritage conservation. It is self-evident that no society makes an effort to conserve a historic asset what it does not value. Since the publication of the Burra Charter in 1979, many countries recognized the importance of identifying the cultural heritage significance or values to develop the policy and planning in heritage management. Today, the cultural significance assessment is part of the listing process of a historical asset as heritage. Although the discourse of cultural heritage conservation in Medan had evolved since the 1980s, cultural significance assessment is still a new concept for Indonesia heritage community with the absence of its description within the Indonesian Heritage Act No. 11 of 2010. For that reason, we need a set of criteria which contain principles, characteristics, categories, and guidance to help decide whether a historic asset has heritage value or not and to make the assessment results more accountable, transparent, and consistent as well. Establishing criteria for listing have traditionally been the territory of academics and experts coordinated by the authorities of the region. However, this study has shown that establishing criteria for significance assessment could be done by involving 33 local people through three phases of data collections and analyses such as field survey; in-depth interview; group meeting; and questionnaire to the 33 participants. Finally, the research revealed six criteria for the significance assessment of cultural heritage in Medan derived from five values: history, physical design or architecture, cultural and spiritual, scientific, and social.


http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kapata.v15i1.523

Keywords


Heritage Significance Criteria; Medan; Local Community Participation; Heritage Value

   

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